Drug Directory A

The information in this directory is provided in collaboration with National Cancer Institute and other academic, federal and industry resources. It contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer.


A-Hydrocort

(Other name for: hydrocortisone sodium succinate)

Abagovomab

A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abarelix

A synthetic decapeptide and antagonist of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Abarelix directly and competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with prostate hypertrophy or prostate cancer, since testosterone is required to sustain prostate growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abatacept

A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABBV-221 | Losatuxizumab Vedotin

An intravenously-administered antibody-drug conjugate or ADC capable of modulating the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. The investigational agents is being studies in a phase I clinical trial as monotherapy on patients with EGFR-dependent tumors (NCT02365662). Preliminary results reveal that the most common adverse events were infusion reactions and fatigue and 16 out of 42 patients (38%) showed SD and 1 patient had an unconfirmed PR. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Abegrin

(Other name for: etaracizumab)

Abelcet

(Other name for: liposomal amphotericin B)

Aberel

(Other name for: tretinoin)

Abexinostat

A novel, broad-spectrum hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. Abexinostat inhibits several isoforms of HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; and the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, upregulated in many tumor types, is an an enzyme that is responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abiraterone acetate

An orally active acetate salt of the steroidal compound abiraterone with antiandrogen activity. Abiraterone inhibits the enzymatic activity of steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase (17alpha-hydrolase/C17,20 lyase complex), a member of the cytochrome p450 family that catalyzes the 17alpha-hydroxylation of steroid intermediates involved in testosterone synthesis. Administration of this agent may suppress testosterone production by both the testes and the adrenals to castrate-range levels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Abitrexate

(Other name for: methotrexate)

Ablavar

(Other name for: gadofosveset trisodium)

Abraxane

(Other name for: paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation)

Absorbable adhesion barrier gel

An isotonic, sterile, absorbable adhesion barrier gel composed of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethylcellulose, with protective activity. Upon application of a single layer into the uterine cavity at the end of any hysteroscopic surgery, the absorbable adhesion barrier gel may provide a protective barrier which protects the traumatized tissue and allows for healing. This gel may therefore prevent the formation of post-surgical intrauterine adhesions. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Absorbable fibrin sealant patch

A sterile, absorbable surgical sealing patch composed of an equine collagen sponge coated with the coagulation factors human fibrinogen and human thrombin, with potential hemostatic activity. Applied on the wound tissue, the absorbable fibrin sealant patch adheres to the tissue and the solid fibrinogen and thrombin dissolve upon contact with the physiological fluid. In turn, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin monomers by thrombin, and polymerize to form a fibrin clot at the wound surface. This causes the patch to adhere to the wound surface and promotes tissue sealing. This may reduce lymphatic drainage and prevent seroma formation. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Absorbable gelatin sponge

A sterile hemostatic agent composed of purified porcine-derived gelatin. In regional chemotherapy, absorbable gelatin sponge may be used to embolize arteries in the region of a tumor in order to block or retard blood flow; this blockage results in a locally increased concentration of chemotherapeutic agents delivered to the tumor when chemotherapeutic agents are infused into the embolized arterial circulation upstream of the blockage. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-510

A molecular therapeutic drug that was the subject of research as a potential treatment for cancer. ABT-510 is a synthetic peptide that mimics the anti-angiogenic activity of the endogenous protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). ABT-510 inhibits the actions of several pro-angiogenic growth factors important to tumor neovascularization; these pro-angiogenic growth factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8). According to the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ABT-510 is a subcutaneously (SC) administered nonapeptide thrombospondin analogue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABT-751

An orally bioavailable antimitotic sulfonamide. ABT-751 binds to the colchicine-binding site on beta-tubulin and inhibits the polymerization of microtubules, thereby preventing tumor cell replication. This agent also disrupts tumor neovascularization, reducing tumor blood flow and so inducing a cytotoxic effect. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVD regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine, used alone or in combination with radiation therapy, for the primary treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE regimen

A regimen containing doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin sulfate, vincristine sulfate and etoposide used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk, childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

ABVE-PC regimen

A regimen consisting of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and cyclophosphamide, given in combination with radiation therapy and used for the treatment of high-risk, childhood Hodgkin’s lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide used in the adjuvant setting for the primary treatment of breast cancer. This regimen is also used for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

AC-T regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubucin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel (Taxol), administered on either a dose-dense or sequential schedule and used as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acadesine

A 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) riboside, a purine nucleoside analog, and a nucleotide biosynthesis precursor with B cell pro-apoptotic activity. Following cellular uptake, acadesine is phosphorylated to AICA ribotide (ZMP), which mimics 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK kinase (AMPKK) are activated by ZMP, which appears to be necessary for the induction of apoptosis. Acadesine-induced apoptosis also appears to require cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase activation and is p53-independent. However, the exact mechanism of acadesine-induced apoptosis is unknown. T cells are significantly less susceptible than B cells to acadesine-induced apoptosis. AMPK regulates several cellular systems including the cellular uptake of glucose, the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, protein synthesis, and the biogenesis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and mitochondria. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acai berry juice

A juice product obtained from the fruit of the acai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea) with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and potential chemopreventive activities. Besides high amounts of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, acai berry is rich in phytonutrients such as anthocyanins and flavones which are potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species. The fruit also contains high amounts of the flavone velutin which exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties. Velutin is able to inhibit the degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB), thereby blocking the activation of NF-kB, as well as inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK. Inhibition of these processes results in suppression of the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Acarbose

A complex oligosaccharide used as a hypoglycemic agent in diabetes management. Acarbose inhibits enzymes required in catabolism of carbohydrates, specifically pancreatic alpha-amylase, which hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, and the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases, which hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. When acarbose is orally administered, less digestion of complex carbohydrates occur and less glucose is absorbed in the small intestine, thereby producing a smaller rise in postprandial blood glucose levels after a carbohydrate load. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Accutane

(Other name for: isotretinoin)

Acelarin

(Other name for: gemcitabine-phosphoramidate NUC-1031)

Acelullar cadaveric dermal matrix

A human dermis-derived allograft material. Acellular cadaveric dermal matrix (ACDM) is derived from human cadaveric dermis from which the epidermis, all viable cells and major histocompatibility class (MHC) II antigens have been removed to minimize alloimmunogenicity, while the dermal collagen matrix is preserved. ACDM may placed over wounds to aid as a substitute for skin when necessary such as for surgical reconstruction or for protection against wound exposure and breakdown and wound infection. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acenocoumarol

A 4-hydroxycoumarin derivative with anticoagulant activity. As a vitamin K antagonist, acenocoumarol inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, thereby inhibiting the reduction of vitamin K and the availability of vitamin KH2. This prevents gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues near the N-terminals of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, including factor II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S. This prevents their activity and thus thrombin formation. Compared to other coumarin derivatives, acenocoumarol has a short half-life. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aceon

(Other name for: perindopril erbumine)

Acetaminophen

A p-aminophenol derivative with analgesic and antipyretic activities. Although the exact mechanism through which acetaminophen exert its effects has yet to be fully determined, acetaminophen may inhibit the nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P, resulting in elevation of the pain threshold. The antipyretic activity may result from inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and release in the central nervous system (CNS) and prostaglandin-mediated effects on the heat-regulating center in the anterior hypothalamus. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acetic acid

A synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties. Although its mechanism of action is not fully known, undissociated acetic acid may enhance lipid solubility allowing increased fatty acid accumulation on the cell membrane or in other cell wall structures. Acetic acid, as a weak acid, can inhibit carbohydrate metabolism resulting in subsequent death of the organism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acetylcysteine

A synthetic N-acetyl derivative of the endogenous amino acid L-cysteine, a precursor of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione. Acetylcysteine regenerates liver stores of glutathione. This agent also reduces disulfide bonds in mucoproteins, resulting in liquification of mucus. Some evidence suggests that acetylcysteine may exert an anti-apoptotic effect due to its antioxidant activity, possibly preventing cancer cell development or growth. In addition, acetylcysteine has inhibited viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates, thereby producing antiviral activity in HIV patients. Check for active clinical trialsor closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acetylsalicylic acid

An orally administered non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid binds to and acetylates serine residues in cyclooxygenases, resulting in decreased synthesis of prostaglandin, platelet aggregation, and inflammation. This agent exhibits analgesic, antipyretic, and anticoagulant properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acetylsalicylic acid/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule

An orally bioavailable combination pill containing aspirin, simvastatin, atenolol, ramipril and thiazide with preventive activity against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor with antiplatelet, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities; simvastatin is a statin with a cholesterol lowering effect; and the beta-blocker atenolol as well as the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the thiazide diuretic all have blood pressure lowering activity. Upon oral administration of aspirin/simvastatin/atenolol/ramipril/thiazide capsule, the combined effects of the active ingredients in this formulation lower the risk of CVD. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Achromycin

(Other name for: tetracycline hydrochloride)

Aciphex

(Other name for: rabeprazole sodium)

Acitretin

An orally-active metabolite of the synthetic aromatic retinoic acid agent etretinate with potential antineoplastic, chemopreventive, anti-psoratic, and embryotoxic properties. Acitretin activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), resulting in induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, and inhibition of tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells. This agent may also inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acivicin

A modified amino acid and structural analog of glutamine. Acivicin inhibits glutamine amidotransferases in the purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in cell lines dependent on glutamine metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aclarubicin

An oligosaccharide anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces galilaeus. Aclarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerases I and II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Aclarubicin is antagonistic to other agents that inhibit topoisomerase II, such as etoposide, teniposide and amsacrine. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acnestrol

(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)

ACNU 50

(Other name for: nimustine)

Acodazole

A synthetic imidazoquinoline with antineoplastic activity. Acodazole intercalates into DNA, resulting in disruption of DNA replication. Use of this agent has been associated with significant cardiotoxicity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acoustic coupling fluid

A brain mimicking fluid with an attenuation coefficient similar to that found in the adult human brain, which can potentially improve the quality of an image acquired during intraoperative ultrasonography. Upon administration into the resection cavity during surgical removal of a brain tumor, the acoustic coupling fluid may both increase the quality of the ultrasound image and improve the visualization of the tumor. This may facilitate the surgical removal of residual tumor while sparing normal, healthy brain tissue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acridine carboxamide

A tricyclic acridine-based (or carboxamide-based) drug with dual topoisomerase inhibitor and potential antineoplastic activities. Acridine carboxamide inhibits both topoisomerases I and II and intercalates into DNA, resulting in DNA damage, the disruption of DNA repair and replication, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis, and cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actemra

(Other name for: tocilizumab)

ActHIB

(Other name for: Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine)

Actigall

(Other name for: ursodiol)

Actimmune

(Other name for: recombinant interferon gamma)

Actinex

(Other name for: masoprocol)

Actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab

A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab conjugated to the alpha-emitting radioisotope actinium Ac 225 with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody moiety of actinium Ac 225 lintuzumab specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33 antigen, delivering a cytotoxic dose of alpha radiation to cells expressing CD33. CD33 is a cell surface antigen expressed on normal non-pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and overexpressed on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actiq

(Other name for: fentanyl citrate)

Activase

(Other name for: alteplase)

Activated marrow infiltrating lymphocytes

A preparation of cells, which consists of autologous marrow infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs), that are manipulated in vitro, with potential antitumor and immune stimulating activities. MILs are harvested from autologous bone marrow from multiple myeloma patients and, in vitro, are exposed to and activated by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies covalently attached to super-paramagnetic microbeads. After removal of the beads and expansion of the cells in culture, the activated MILs (aMILs) are re-introduced into the patient. The aMILs possess enhanced myeloma specificity, and are able to infiltrate the tumor microenvironment and initiate tumor cell lysis. CD3 and CD28, co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of T-lymphocytes, play a key role in the activation of T-cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Activella

(Other name for: estradiol/norethindrone acetate tablet)

ActiVin

(Other name for: IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract)

Activin type 2B receptor Fc fusion protein STM 434

A soluble fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of the activin receptor type 2B (ACVR2B or ActRIIB) fused to a human Fc domain, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, STM 434 selectively binds to the growth factor activin A, thereby preventing its binding to and the activation of endogenous ActRIIB. This prevents activin A/ActRIIB-mediated signaling and inhibits the proliferation of activin A-overexpressing tumor cells. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and plays a key role in promoting cancer cell proliferation, migration, and survival. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Actonel

(Other name for: risedronate sodium)

Actos

(Other name for: pioglitazone hydrochloride)

Acyclovir

A synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Acyclovir sodium

The sodium salt form of acyclovir, a synthetic analog of the purine nucleoside, guanosine, with potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus and other viruses. After conversion in vivo to the active metabolite acyclovir triphosphate, acyclovir competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase, incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared to VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the thymidine kinase of HSV. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Aczone Gel

(Other name for: dapsone gel, 5%)

Ad-hCMV-Flt3L

A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the soluble, immune-mediated stimulatory gene human fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration, Ad-hCMV-Flt3L is transduced into tumor cells and Flt3L is expressed. Flt3L stimulates both the proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their migration to the tumor site. Upon exposure to the tumor-associated antigens (TAA) released from dying glioma cells, which were killed by thymidine kinase-mediated valacyclovir-induced tumor cell death, the DCs initiate a specific immune response against any remaining TAA-expressing tumor cells. Flt3L is a hematopoietic growth factor and ligand for the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-hCMV-TK

A human serotype 5, replication-defective, first generation adenoviral vector, with the viral E1a and E3 protein encoding regions deleted, which is engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter. This agent, when administered in conjunction with a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, possesses potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration into the peritumoral region after tumor resection, adenoviral vector encoding HSV thymidine kinase is transduced into tumor cells, and HSV-tk is expressed. Tumor cells expressing HSV-tk are sensitive to synthetic acyclic guanosine analogues. Subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue, such as valacyclovir (VCV) or ganciclovir (GCV), kills the tumor cells expressing HSV-tk. The release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) by dying tumor cells may then stimulate an antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, directed aganst any remaining tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-REIC/DKK3 vaccine

A replication incompetent adenoviral vector encoding the full-length tumor suppressor gene Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cells (REIC or DKK3) (ad-REIC/DKK3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral injection, tumor cells express REIC/DKK3 protein. This may result in the activation of c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) and ultimately apoptosis via Bcl2 suppression and caspase-3 activation. Expression of REIC/DKK3 is normal in healthy cells but reduced or absent in many cancer cells; Forced overexpression of REIC/DKK3 in cancer cells may lead to an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and reduction of tumor cell growth while sparing normal, healthy cells naturally expressing endogenous REIC/DKK3. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad-sig-hMUC-1/ecdCD40L vaccine

A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human MUC-1 (hMUC-1) linked to the extracellular domain (ecd) of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L) and an adenovirus signal sequence that encodes a secretory signal peptide (Ad-sig) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Due to the presence of the secretory signal peptide expressed by Ad-sig in the vaccine construct, transfected cells may secrete a fusion protein composed of hMUC-1 and the CD40L ecd. The CD40L moiety part of the fusion protein binds to CD40 receptors on dendritic cells (DCs). Subsequently, DCs may be activated and migrate, T-cells may expand, and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that overexpress hMUC-1 may follow. MUC-1 is a hypoglycosylated TAA overexpressed by epithelial cancer cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5-CMV-NIS

A recombinant type 5 adenovirus (Ad5), encoding the gene for the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) linked to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, with potential gene transfection activity. Upon intratumoral injection, Ad5-CMV-NIS is taken up by tumor cells, resulting in the cellular expression of NIS. Subsequently, orally administered iodine 131 is taken up by NIS-expressing tumor cells, which may result in the selective accumulation of a cytotoxic dose of beta and gamma radiation in non-thyroidal tumor cells, sparing adjacent normal tissue. NIS, an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein, is an ion pump that actively transports iodide into cells which concentrate iodine; in addition to thyroid epithelial cells, it is found in non-thyroidal tissues including the salivary glands, the gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary glands. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP

A second generation, replication-competent adenovirus type 5 containing a yeast cytosine deaminase(yCD)/mutant sr39 herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase fusion (yCD/mutTKsr39) gene and the 11.6 kDa adenovirus death protein (ADP) gene with potential oncolytic activity. Upon intratumoral administration and transduction of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP into tumor cells and subsequent expression of cytosine deaminase and viral thymidine kinase, administered prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir are converted into their respective metabolites 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and ganciclovir-5-monophosphate (ganciclovir-MP); 5-FU is subsequently metabolized to cytotoxic active metabolites 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate (F-UMP) and 5-5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-O-monophosphate (F-dUMP); ganciclovir-TP subsequently is converted by mammalian thymidine kinase to cytotoxic ganciclovir-triphosphate (ganciclovir -TP). Tumor cells adjacent to tumor cells transduced with this agent may be killed through a “bystander effect”. ADP may enhance spread and oncolytic activity of replication-competent adenoviruses. In addition to its oncolytic activity, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP may exhibit radiosensitizing activity. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD

An RGD-4C–modified, infectivity-enhanced, bicistronic type 5 adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, a therapeutic suicide gene, and the somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) gene with potential antineoplastic activity. Modification with the double cyclic peptide RGD-4C allows the virus to bind to cellular integrins, frequently expressed on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells, instead of the coxsackie and adenovirus (CAR) receptor, which is often nonfunctional in ovarian cancer cells. Upon intratumoral administration, Ad5.SSTR/TK.RGD transfects tumor cells and expresses the HSV-tk gene. After subsequent administration of a synthetic acyclic guanosine analogue prodrug like ganciclovir (GCV), expressed HSV-tk phosphorylates and activates the prodrug, which may result in inhibition of DNA synthesis and apoptosis in HSV-tk-expressing cancer cells. Additionally, as a bystander effect, adjacent non-transfected cells may be killed by the activated antiviral drug. SSTR2 expression allows imaging of gene transfer into tumor cells using a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ad5CMV-p53 gene

A replication-defective adenoviral-CMV vector that encodes a wild-type p53 gene. Ad5CMV-p53 induces tumor cells that have been transfected with the vector to produce wild-type p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is deleted or mutated in a significant number of cancers. In transfected tumor cells, the wild-type p-53 gene product exerts an antitumor effect by blocking cell cycle progression at the G1/S regulation point, activating DNA repair proteins in the presence of DNA damage, and initiating apoptosis when DNA damage is irreparable. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus).

Last Editorial Review: October 3, 2018

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