Drug Directory B

The information in this directory is provided by the U.S. National Cancer Institute  and other academic, federal and industry resources. It contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer.


B-Raf/VEGFR-2 inhibitor RAF265

An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. B-Raf/VEGFR-2 inhibitor RAF265 binds and inhibits Raf kinases, which may result in a reduction of tumor cell growth and proliferation, and tumor cell death. In addition, this agent inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR-2), thereby disrupting tumor angiogenesis. Raf kinases are critical enzymes in the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and are frequently upregulated in neoplasms. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

B16alphaGal melanoma vaccine

A whole cell melanoma cancer vaccine with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. B16alphaGal melanoma vaccine contains three types of human melanoma cell lines that are genetically engineered to express the alpha(1,3)-galactosyl (alphaGal) epitope on cell surfaces. The agent stimulates a hyperacute rejection of whole melanoma cancer cells expressing alphaGal epitopes, initiated by opsonization by anti-alphaGal antibodies and followed by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cell lysis. This results in the stimulation of a broader cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response (CTL) directed against tumor antigens on melanoma cells that do not express alphaGal. AlphaGal is not normally expressed in humans because alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase (Alpha-GT), the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of alphaGal epitopes on glycoproteins and glycolipids, is not naturally present in humans and other primates. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

B43-PAP immunotoxin

A mouse-derived anti-human CD19 monoclonal antibody linked to pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) antiviral protein (PAP) with antileukemic activity. The monoclonal antibody portion specifically binds to the CD19 antigen, a cell surface molecule normally expressed only by B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells and over-expressed in B-lineage lymphocytic leukemia cells. Following internalization, PAP, a plant hemitoxin and a ribosome-inactivating protein, is cleaved from the immunoconjugate and released into the cytoplasm where it enzymatically removes a single adenine base from a conserved, surface exposed loop sequence of rRNA leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and cell growth, but not necessarily cell death. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

B7-DC cross-linking antibody rHIgM12B7

A recombinant form of the monoclonal IgM antibody M12 isolated from a Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia patient (rHIgM12) with potential immunomodulating activity. B7-DC cross-linking antibody rHIgM12B7 binds and crosslinks the B7 co-stimulatory family member B7-DC (PD-L2) on dendritic cells (DCs), antigen presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in the human immune response. This results in enhanced activation of DCs; enhanced antigen-presenting activity; and increased production of immunomodulatory cytokines (especially interleukin 12); and may potentiate a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia B cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bacitracin

A complex of cyclic polypeptide antibiotics, mainly bacitracin A, produced by spore-forming organisms belonging to the licheniformin group of the Bacillus subtilis with antibacterial activity. Bacitracin binds to C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a biphosphate lipid transport molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall. The binding interferes with the enzymatic dephosphorylation of the C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate and prevents peptidoglycan synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial cell growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Baclofen

A synthetic chlorophenyl-butanoic acid derivative with muscle relaxant activity. Baclofen acts as a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist specific for GABA-B receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). At spinal and supraspinal sites, this agent reduces excitatory transmission. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Baclofen/amitriptyline/ketamine gel

A topical preparation of baclofen, amitriptyline, and ketamine compounded in a penetration-enhancing polaxamer-lecithin organogel (PLO) with potential antineuralgic activity. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue baclofen appears to activate the inhibitory GABA(B) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, which may result in hyperpolarization of the neuronal cell membrane and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Amitriptyline likely produces antineuralgic effects via modulation of multiple subtypes of glutamate (Glu) receptors, independent of its antidepressant actions. Ketamine displays complex pharmacologic actions including biogenic amine uptake inhibition, interaction with opioid receptors, and inhibition of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Stimulation of GABA(B) receptor activity, modulation of Glu receptor activity, and inhibition of NMDA receptor activity may be of benefit in managing neuropathic pain. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bacteriophage phi X 174

A bacteriophage that infects E. coli. Its genome is a circular DNA of 5386 bases. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Bactrim

(Other name for: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)

Bafetinib

An orally bioavailable 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Bafetinib specifically binds to and inhibits the Bcr/Abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase, an abnormal enzyme produced by Philadelphia chromosomal translocation associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This agent also inhibits the Src-family member Lyn tyrosine kinase, upregulated in imatinib-resistant CML cells and in a variety of solid cancer cell types. The inhibitory effect of bafetinib on these specific tyrosine kinases may decrease cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. CML patients may be refractory to imatinib, which sometimes results from point mutations occurring in the kinase domain of the Bcr/Abl fusion product. Due to its dual inhibitory activity, the use of bafetinib has been shown to overcome this particular drug resistance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bag Balm

(Other name for: 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate ointment)

Balziva

(Other name for: ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone)

Banoxantrone

A bioreductive, alkylaminoanthraquinone prodrug with antineoplastic activity. Under hypoxic conditions, often seen in solid tumors, banoxantrone (AQ4N) is converted and activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are upregulated in certain tumors, to the cytotoxic DNA-binding agent AQ4. Banoxantrone intercalates into and crosslinks DNA, and inhibits topoisomerase II. This results in an inhibition of DNA replication and repair in tumor cells. Combined with conventional therapeutic agents, both oxygenic and hypoxic regions of tumors can be targeted. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Baraclude

(Other name for: entecavir)

Barasertib

An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, dihydrogen phosphate prodrug of the pyrazoloquinazoline Aurora kinase inhibitor AZD1152–hydroxyquinazoline pyrazol anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and rapid conversion from the prodrug form in plasma, barasertib specifically binds to and inhibits Aurora kinase B, which results in the disruption of spindle checkpoint functions and chromosome alignment and, so, the disruption of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Consequently, cell division and cell proliferation are inhibited and apoptosis is induced in Aurora kinase B-overexpressing tumor cells. Aurora kinase B, a serine/threonine protein kinase that functions in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere, is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bardoxolone

A synthetic triterpenoid compound with potential antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory activities. Bardoxolone blocks the synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2), two enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. This agent also inhibits the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and the expression of Bcl-3; Bcl-3 is an IL-1-responsive gene that preferentially contributes to MMP-1 gene expression. Check for active clinical trialsor closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Barium sulfate

The sulfate salt of barium, an alkaline, divalent metal. Barium sulfate is quite insoluble in water, and is used as a radiopaque agent to diagnose gastrointestinal medical conditions. Barium sulfate is taken by mouth or given rectally. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Barseb HC

(Other name for: therapeutic hydrocortisone)

Basiliximab

A recombinant, chimeric, human-murine monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R alpha) with immunosuppressant activity. Basiliximab selectively binds to and blocks IL-2R alpha, expressed on the surface of activated T-lymphocytes, thereby preventing interleukin-2 binding and inhibiting the interleukin-2-mediated activation of lymphocytes. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Batabulin sodium

A synthetic pentafluorophenylsulfonamide with potential antineoplastic activity. Batabulin sodium covalently binds to and selectively modifies the beta 1, beta 2, beta 3, and beta 4 isotypes of beta tubulin at a conserved cysteine residue, resulting in disruption of microtubule polymerization, collapse of the cytoskeleton, an increase in chromosomal ploidy, cell cycle arrest, and tumor cell apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bavituximab

An IgG3 monoclonal antibody directed against anionic phospholipids with potential antineoplastic activity. Chimeric anti-phosphotidylserine monoclonal antibody binds to anionic phospholipids in a beta 2-glycoprotein I-dependent manner, inhibiting tumor growth by stimulating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to tumor vessels. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BAY 56-3722

A water-soluble camptothecin derivative conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety exhibiting antineoplastic activity. BAY 56-3722 stabilizes the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex and forms an enzyme-drug-DNA ternary complex. As a consequence of the formation of this complex, both the initial cleavage reaction and religation steps are inhibited and subsequent collision of the replication fork with the cleaved strand of DNA results in inhibition of DNA replication, double strand DNA breakage and triggering of apoptosis. The peptide carbohydrate moiety of this agent stabilizes the lactone form of camptothecin in blood. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BayGam

(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

BC-819 plasmid/polyethylenimine complex

A plasmid DNA encoding for the A fragment of Diphtheria Toxin (DTA) under the control of the H19 gene promoter (BC-819 or DTA-H19) and mixed with the transfectant polyethylenimine (PEI), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the PEI moiety enhances the entry of the agent into rapidly dividing cells. Upon cell entry, activation of the H19 gene promoter-containing plasmids and DTA expression are limited to tumor cells, as high levels of H19 expression are only found in tumor cells. DTA disrupts protein synthesis. Tumor-cell selective expression of this toxin leads to the selective destruction of the tumor while sparing healthy, normal cells. H19, an oncofetal, regulatory RNA, is overexpressed in certain cancer cells while its expression in normal cells is minimal or absent; it plays a key role in cancer progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BCG solution

A solution containing an attenuated, live culture preparation of the Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) strain of Mycobacterium bovis with potential immunostimulating activity. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, upon intravesical administration, attenuated, live BCG bacteria in the solution come into direct contact with the bladder wall, inciting an antitumor granulomatous inflammatory reaction. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BCG vaccine

A vaccine containing bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, with non-specific immunoadjuvant and immunotherapeutic activities. Although the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is unclear, immunization with BCG vaccine likely activates a Th1 cytokine response that includes the induction of interferon. Vaccination with BCG vaccine may be immunoprotective against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bcl-2 inhibitor GDC-0199

An orally bioavailable, selective small molecule inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, with potential antineoplastic activity. GDC-0199 mimics BH3-only proteins, the native ligands of Bcl-2 and apoptosis activators, by binding to the hydrophobic groove of Bcl-2 proteins thereby repressing Bcl-2 activity and restoring apoptotic processes in tumor cells. Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in some cancers and plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis; its expression is associated with increased drug resistance and tumor cell survival. Compared to the Bcl-2 inhibitor navitoclax, this agent does not inhibit bcl-XL and does not cause bcl-XL-mediated thrombocytopenia. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BCMA-specific CAR-expressing T lymphocytes

A preparation of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTL) that have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, BCMA-specific CAR-expressing T-lymphocytes specifically recognize and kill BCMA-expressing tumor cells. BCMA, a tumor specific antigen and a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand and B-cell activating factor, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and plays a key role in plasma survival; it is found on the surfaces of plasma cells and overexpressed on malignant plasma cells. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl (b2a2)-derived peptide vaccine

A peptide vaccine consisting of the bcr-abl b2a2 fusion oncoprotein, frequently expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the bcr-abl (b2a2)-derived peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl b2a2 fusion protein. Fusion genes in CML typically result from the fusion of either BCR exon b2 or BCR exon b3 to ABL exon a2, a ‘b3a2’ or a ‘b2a2’ fusion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl (b3a2)-derived peptide vaccine

A peptide vaccine consisting of the bcr-abl b3a2 fusion oncoprotein, frequently expressed in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the bcr-abl (b3a2)-derived peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl b3a2 fusion protein. Fusion genes in CML typically result from the fusion of either BCR exon b2 or BCR exon b3 to ABL exon a2, a ‘b3a2’ or a ‘b2a2’ fusion. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint-derived multipeptide vaccine

A multipeptide vaccine consisting of five peptides derived from the bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint fusion protein with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint-derived multipeptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express the bcr-abl p210-b3a2 breakpoint fusion protein. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), fusion genes typically result from the fusion of either bcr exon b2 or exon b3 to abl exon a2, resulting in either a b3a2 or a b2a2 gene fusion product. Check for active clinical trialsor closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

bcr-abl peptide vaccine

A multivalent antineoplastic vaccine comprised of the bcr-abl oncogene breakpoint fusion peptide that elicits a bcr-abl specific T-cell immune response. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BEACOPP regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine and prednisone, used for the treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bead Block Compressible Microspheres

(Other name for: PVA microporous hydrospheres)

Becatecarin

A synthetic diethylaminoethyl analogue of the indolocarbazole glycoside antineoplastic antibiotic rebeccamycin. Becatecarin intercalates into DNA and stabilizes the DNA-topoisomerase I complex, thereby interfering with the topoisomerase I-catalyzed DNA breakage-reunion reaction and initiating DNA cleavage and apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Becenum

(Other name for: carmustine)

Beclomethasone dipropionate

The dipropionate salt of a synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. After cell surface receptor attachment and cell entry, beclomethasone enters the nucleus where it binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Beclovent

(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

Beconase

(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)

Beesix

(Other name for: pyridoxine hydrochloride)

BeetElite NeoShot

(Other name for: concentrated beet crystals)

Beetroot juice

The juice of the beetroot, with potential antioxidant and protective activities. Beetroot juice contains antioxidants, including betacyanin, which scavenge free radicals. In addition, beetroot contains high levels of nitrates and folic acid. Consumption of beetroot juice leads to the conversion of nitrate to nitric oxide (NO) in the body. This juice may have a beneficial effect on blood flow and blood pressure through the induction of NO-mediated vasodilation. Additionally, this agent may decrease fatigue and increase physical performance. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Belagenpumatucel-L

A transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) antisense gene-modified allogeneic tumor cell vaccine with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Belagenpumatucel-L is prepared by transfecting allogeneic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with a plasmid containing a TGF-beta2 antisense transgene, expanding the cells, and then irradiating and freezing them. Upon administration, this agent may elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against host NSCLC cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation; vaccine immunogenicity may be potentiated by suppression of tumor TGF-beta2 production by antisense RNA expressed by the vaccine plasmid TGF-beta2 antisense transgene. Elevated levels of TGF-beta2 are frequently linked to immunosuppression in cancer patients and may be inversely correlated with prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Beleodaq

(Other name for: belinostat)

Belimumab

A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against B-Lymphocyte stimulator protein (BlyS or TNFSF13B) with potential immunomodulating activity. Belimumab specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of BlyS, thereby preventing the binding of BlyS to B-lymphocytes. This inhibits the maturation of B-lymphocytes and may induce apoptosis in B-lymphocytes. In addition, it may decrease B-lymphocyte proliferation and/or survival. BlyS, a member of TNF family supporting B-lymphocyte maturation and survival, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and B-lymphocyte malignancies. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Belinostat

A novel hydroxamic acid-type histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Belinostat targets HDAC enzymes, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, promoting cellular differentiation, and inhibiting angiogenesis. This agent may sensitize drug-resistant tumor cells to other antineoplastic agents, possibly through a mechanism involving the down-regulation of thymidylate synthase. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Belotecan hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of the semi-synthetic camptothecin analogue belotecan with potential antitumor activity. Belotecan binds to and inhibits the activity of topoisomerase I, stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I-DNA, which inhibits the religation of single-stranded DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase I; lethal double-stranded DNA breaks occur when the topoisomerase I-DNA complex is encountered by the DNA replication machinery, DNA replication is disrupted, and the tumor cell undergoes apoptosis. Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that mediates reversible single-strand breaks in DNA during DNA replication. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bemiparin sodium

The sodium salt of bemiparin, a second generation, synthetic, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) with anticoagulant activity. Derived, after depolymerisation and fractionation, from medical-grade porcine unfractionated heparin (UFH), bemiparin has an average molecular weight of 3,600 daltons and has a higher anti-factor Xa/anti-factor IIa ratio (8:1) than first-generation LMWHs. This anticoagulant binds to antithrombin III, thereby enhancing the inactivation of activated Factor X (Factor Xa) and, to a lesser extent, activated factor II (Factor IIa). Compared to unfractionated heparins, the use of bemiparin is associated with lower incidences of major bleeding, osteoporosis, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Bemiparin also promotes a greater release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor than UFH or dalteparin. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Benadryl

(Other name for: diphenhydramine hydrochloride)

Benazepril hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of benazepril, a carboxyl-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with antihypertensive activity. As a prodrug, benazepril is metabolized to its active form benazeprilat. Benazeprilat competitively binds to and inhibits ACE, thereby blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This prevents the potent vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II, resulting in vasodilation. Benazeprilat also decreases angiotensin II-induced aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increase in sodium excretion and subsequently increases water outflow. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bendamustine hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of bendamustine, a bifunctional mechlorethamine derivative with alkylator and antimetabolite activities. Bendamustine possesses three active moieties: an alkylating group; a benzimidazole ring, which may act as a purine analogue; and a butyric acid side chain. Although its exact mechanism of action is unknown, this agent appears to act primarily as an alkylator. Bendamustine metabolites alkylate and crosslink macromolecules, resulting in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis inhibition, and, subsequently, apoptosis. Bendamustine may differ from other alkylators in that it may be more potent in activating p53-dependent stress pathways and inducing apoptosis; it may induce mitotic catastrophe; and it may activate a base excision DNA repair pathway rather than an alkyltransferase DNA repair mechanism. Accordingly, this agent may be more efficacious and less susceptible to drug resistance than other alkylators. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Bendopa

(Other name for: levodopa)

Benefin

(Other name for: shark cartilage)

Benemid

(Other name for: probenecid)

Beneo Synergy 1

(Other name for: oligofructose-enriched inulin)

Benlysta

(Other name for: belimumab)

Benoquin

(Other name for: monobenzone)

Benzaldehyde dimethane sulfonate

A dimethane sulfonate derivative and alkylating agent with a structure similar to other alkylating agents such as chlorambucil, busulfan and melphalan, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, benzaldehyde dimethane sulfonate alkylates DNA, which results in DNA double strand breaks, inhibition of DNA replication, cell cycle arrest and cell death. In addition, this agent is metabolized by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into the active carboxylic acid metabolite benzoic acid dimethane sulfonate (BA), which further contributes to its alkylating activity. Unlike other alkylating agents, benzaldehyde dimethane sulfonate has demonstrated antitumor activity in renal cell carcinoma. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Benzoylphenylurea

A low molecular weight agent with antineoplastic activity. Benzoylphenylurea binds to the colchicine binding site on tubulin, thereby blocking tubulin polymerization and disrupting mitotic function. This agent also inhibits DNA polymerase, and has been shown to arrest leukemia cells in the G1-S transition phase of the cell cycle. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Benzydamine hydrochloride

An indazole non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-edema properties. Unlike other NSAIDs, benzydamine hydrochloride does not inhibit cyclooxygenases (COX) but stabilizes membranes, resulting in local anesthesia; inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; inhibits the generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils; inhibits leukocyte aggregation and adhesion; and exhibits antimicrobial properties. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BEP regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (Platinum) used for the treatment of adult and childhood ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors. (NCI Thesaurus)

Berberine chloride

The orally bioavailable, hydrochloride salt form of berberine, a quaternary ammonium salt of an isoquinoline alkaloid and active component of various Chinese herbs, with potential antineoplastic, radiosensitizing, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic and antidiabetic activities. Although the mechanisms of action through which berberine exerts its effects are not yet fully elucidated, upon administration this agent appears to suppress the activation of various proteins and/or modulate the expression of a variety of genes involved in tumorigenesis and inflammation, including, but not limited to transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), C-X-C motif chemokine 2 (CXCL2), cyclin D1, activator protein (AP-1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and DNA topoisomerase I and II. The modulation of gene expression may induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. In addition, berberine modulates lipid and glucose metabolism. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Berubicin hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of the anthracycline derivative berubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. Berubicin intercalates into DNA and interrupts topoisomerase II activity, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and repair, and RNA and protein synthesis. Unlike other anthracycline derivatives, this agent crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

BET inhibitor CPI-0610

A small molecule inhibitor of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) family of proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the BET inhibitor CPI-0610 binds to the acetylated lysine recognition motifs on the bromodomain of BET proteins, thereby preventing the interaction between the BET proteins and acetylated histone peptides. This disrupts chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Prevention of the expression of certain growth-promoting genes may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell growth. Characterized by a tandem repeat of two bromodomains at the N-terminus, the BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are transcriptional regulators that play an important role during development and cellular growth. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (